Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Love Expression in A Room With a View - 1019 Words

Imagine being required to marry someone because of the family you belong to instead of being able to meet someone, fall in love, and marry them. In 2011, no one I know could imagine being told by their parents or expectations of their society who you have to marry whether you like them or not. Forester writes about love in A Room with a View. He believes love is important, even though, the book is set in an English society about 100 years ago, where love is not important, at a time when people are encouraged to strictly follow the rules and ethics of their place in society. Civilized people believe love and romance is less important than following the rules and expectations of a prim and proper existence. Some characters such as Mr.†¦show more content†¦Lucy is with Cecil her fiancà © of obligation and George who passionately loves her in the garden. As they are going back to the house, George and Lucy run up ahead of Cecil, and they kiss, Cecil doesn’t even notice. â€Å"She led the way up the garden, Cecil following her, George last. She thought a disaster was averted. But when they entered the shrubbery it came. The book, as if it had not worked mischief enough, had been forgotten, and Cecil must go back for it, and George, who loved passionately, must blunder against her in the narrow path. ‘No—‘she gasped, and, for the second time, was kissed by him† It was dangerous to express passion in front of a woman’s fiancà © at any time, but particularly in England at this time. Here George’s Dad, Mr. Emerson, is speaking. This is quite a different view than a good member of English society would have lived by. â€Å"’I taught him,’ he quavered, ‘to trust in love. I said: ‘When love comes, that is reality.’ I said: ‘Passion does not blind. No. Passion is sanity, and the woman you love, she is the only person you will ever really understand’† (192). Here Mr . Forester is suggesting that love is more valuable, honest, and important than in any relationship than the social classes and social expectations of the time. In this story there is an ongoing struggle between following the rules and expectations of a strict society to marry the proper person, or getShow MoreRelatedThe Problem Of Self-Expression In 1984 By George Orwell848 Words   |  4 Pagesconscious (Orwell70). In George Orwells 1984 he shows the authority a government can have on ones life even when all they want is self-expression. Many are too frightened to rebel, yet when one does it impacts his life forever. Even though the society of 1984 by George Orwell claims to be complete and total censorship, the problem of wanting more self-expression is still evident which is shown through indirect characterization, symbolism, and themes. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Lamb The Gospel According to Biff, Christ’s Childhood Pal Chapter 21 Free Essays

string(89) " some of the sheep bladders with rendered fat, and bundle the wool in some kind of hide\." Chapter 21 â€Å"You make a very attractive woman,† Rumi said from the comfort of his pit. â€Å"Did I tell you that my wife has passed on to her next incarnation and that I am alone?† â€Å"Yeah, you mentioned that.† He seemed to have given up on us getting his daughter back. We will write a custom essay sample on Lamb: The Gospel According to Biff, Christ’s Childhood Pal Chapter 21 or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"What happened to the rest of your family, anyway?† â€Å"They drowned.† â€Å"I’m sorry. In the Ganges?† â€Å"No, at home. It was the monsoon season. Little Vitra and I had gone to the market to buy some swill, and there was a sudden downpour. When we returned†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He shrugged. â€Å"I don’t mean to sound insensitive, Rumi, but there is a chance that your loss could have been caused by – oh, I don’t know – perhaps the fact that you LIVE IN A FUCKING PIT!† â€Å"That’s not helping, Biff,† Joshua said. â€Å"You said you had a plan?† â€Å"Right. Rumi, am I correct in assuming that these pits, when someone is not living in them, are used for tanning hides?† â€Å"Yes, it is work that only Untouchables may do.† â€Å"That would account for the lovely smell. I assume you use urine in the tanning process, right?† â€Å"Yes, urine, mashed brains, and tea are the main ingredients.† â€Å"Show me the pit where the urine is condensed.† â€Å"The Rajneesh family is living there.† â€Å"That’s okay, we’ll bring them a present. Josh, do you have any lint in the bottom of your satchel?† â€Å"What are you up to?† â€Å"Alchemy,† I said. â€Å"The subtle manipulation of the elements. Watch and learn.† When it was not being used, the urine pit was the home of the Rajneesh family, and they were more than happy to give us loads of the white crystals that covered the floor of their home. There were six in the family, father, mother, an almost grown daughter, and three little ones. Another little son had been taken for sacrifice at the festival of Kali. Like Rumi, and all the other Untouchables, the Rajneesh family looked more like skeletons mummified in brown leather than people. The Untouchable men went about the pits naked or wearing only a loincloth, and even the women were dressed in tatters that barely covered them – nothing as nice as the stylish sari that I had purchased in the marketplace. Mr. Rajneesh commented that I was a very attractive woman and encouraged me to drop by after the next monsoon. Joshua pounded chunks of the crystallized mineral into a fine white powder while Rumi and I collected charcoal from under the heated dying pit (a firebox had been gouged out of the stone under the pit) which the Untouchables used to render the flowers from the indigo shrub into fabric dye. â€Å"I need brimstone, Rumi. Do you know what that is? A yellow stone that burns with a blue flame and gives off a smoke that smells like rotten eggs?† â€Å"Oh yes, they sell it in the market as some sort of medicine.† I handed the Untouchable a silver coin. Go buy as much of it as you can carry.† â€Å"Oh my, this will be more than enough money. May I buy some salt with what is left?† â€Å"Buy what you need with what’s left over, just go.† Rumi skulked away and I went to help Joshua process the saltpeter. The concept of abundance was an abstract one to the Untouchables, except as it pertained to two categories, suffering and animal parts. If you wanted decent food, shelter, or clean water, you would be sorely disappointed among the Untouchables, but if you were in the market for beaks, bones, teeth, hides, sinew, hooves, hair, gallstones, fins, feathers, ears, antlers, eyeballs, bladders, lips, nostrils, poop chutes, or any other inedible part of virtually any creature that walked on, swam under, or flew over the subcontinent of India, then the Untouchables were likely to have what you wanted lying around, conveniently stored beneath a thick blanket of black flies. In order to fashion the equipment I needed for my plan, I had to think in terms of animal parts. Fine unless you need, say, a dozen short swords, bows and arrows, and chain mail for thirty soldiers and all you have to work with is a stack of nostrils and three mismatched poop chutes. It was a challenge, but I made do. As Jo shua moved among the Untouchables, surreptitiously healing their maladies, I barked out my orders. â€Å"I need eight sheep bladders – fairly dry – two handfuls of crocodile teeth, two pieces of rawhide as long as my arms and half again as wide. No, I don’t care what kind of animal, just not too ripe, if you can manage it. I need hair from an elephant’s tail. I need firewood, or dried dung if you must, eight oxtails, a basket of wool, and a bucket of rendered fat.† And a hundred scrawny Untouchables stood there, eyes as big as saucers, just staring at me while Joshua moved among them, healing their wounds, sicknesses, and insanities, without any of them suspecting what was happening. (We’d agreed that this was the wisest tack to take, as we didn’t want a bunch of healthy Untouchables athletically bounding through Kalighat proclaiming that they had been cured of all ills by a strange foreigner, thus attracting attention to us and spoiling my plan. On the other hand, neither could we stand there and watch these people suffer, knowing that we – well, Joshua – had the power to help them.) He’d also taken to poking one of them in the arm with his finger anytime anyone said the word â€Å"Untouchable.† Later he told me that he just hated passing up the opportunity for palpable irony. I cringed when I saw Joshua touching the lepers among them, as if after all these years away from Israel a tiny Pharisee stood on my shoulder and screamed, â€Å"Unclean!† â€Å"Well?† I said after I’d finished my orders. â€Å"Do you want your children back or not?† â€Å"We don’t have a bucket,† said one woman. â€Å"Or a basket,† said another. â€Å"Okay, fill some of the sheep bladders with rendered fat, and bundle the wool in some kind of hide. You read "Lamb: The Gospel According to Biff, Christ’s Childhood Pal Chapter 21" in category "Essay examples" Now go, we don’t have a lot of time.† And they all stood and looked at me. Big eyes. Sores healed. Parasites purged. They just looked at me. â€Å"Look, I know my Sanskrit isn’t great, but you do know what I am asking?† A young man stepped forward. â€Å"We do not want to anger Kali by depriving her of her sacrifices.† â€Å"You’re kidding, right?† â€Å"Kali is the bringer of destruction, without which there can be no rebirth. She is the remover of the bondage that ties us to the material world. If we anger her, she will deprive us of her divine destruction.† I looked at Joshua across the crowd. â€Å"Do you understand this?† â€Å"Fear?† he said. â€Å"Can you help?† I asked in Aramaic. â€Å"I’m not good at fear,† Joshua said in Hebrew. I thought for a second as two hundred eyes pinned me to the sandstone on which I stood. I remembered the red-stained gashes on the wooden elephant statues at the altar of Kali. Death was their deliverance, was it? â€Å"What is your name?† I asked the man who had stepped out of the crowd. â€Å"Nagesh,† he said. â€Å"Stick out your tongue, Nagesh.† He did, and I threw back the cloth that covered my head and loosened it around my neck. Then I touched his tongue. â€Å"Destruction is a gift you value?† â€Å"Yes,† said Nagesh. â€Å"Then I shall be the instrument of the goddess’s gift.† With that I pulled the black glass dagger from the sheath in my sash, held it up before the crowd. While Nagesh stood, passive, wide-eyed, I drove my thumb under his jaw, pushed his head back, and brought the dagger down across his throat. I lowered him to the ground as the red liquid spurted over the sandstone. I stood and faced the crowd again, holding the dripping blade over my head. â€Å"You owe me, you ungrateful fucks! I have brought to your people the gift of Kali, now bring me what I ask for.† They moved really quickly for people who were on the edge of starvation. After the Untouchables scattered to do my bidding, Joshua and I stood over the bloodstained body of Nagesh. â€Å"That was fantastic,† Joshua said. â€Å"Absolutely perfect.† â€Å"Thanks.† â€Å"Had you been practicing all that time we were in the monastery?† â€Å"You didn’t see me push the pressure point in his neck then?† â€Å"No, not at all.† â€Å"Gaspar’s kung fu training. The rest, of course, was from Joy and Balthasar.† I bent over and opened Nagesh’s mouth, then took the ying-yang vial from around my neck and put a drop of the antidote on the Untouchable’s tongue. â€Å"So he can hear us now, like when Joy poisoned you?† Joshua asked. I pulled back one of Nagesh’s eyelids and watched the pupil contract slowly in the sunlight. â€Å"No, I think he’s still unconscious from me holding the pressure point. I didn’t think the poison would work quickly enough. I could only get a drop of poison on my finger when I loosened my sari. I knew it would keep him down, I just wasn’t sure it would put him down.† â€Å"Well, you are truly a magus, now, Biff. I’m impressed.† â€Å"Joshua, you healed a hundred people today. Half of them were probably dying. I did some sleight of hand.† My friend’s enthusiasm was undeterred. â€Å"What’s the red stuff, pomegranate juice? I can’t figure out where you concealed it.† â€Å"No, actually I was going to ask you about that.† â€Å"What?† I held my arm up and showed Joshua where I had slashed my own wrist (the source of blood for the show). I had been holding it against my leg and as soon as I removed the pressure the blood started spurting again. I sat down hard on the sandstone and my vision began to tunnel down to a pinpoint. â€Å"I was hoping you could help me out with this,† I said before I fainted. â€Å"You need to work on that part of the trick,† Joshua said when I came to. â€Å"I might not always be around to fix your wrist.† He was speaking Hebrew – that meant for my ears only. I saw Joshua kneeling above me, then beyond him the sky was blotted out by curious brown faces. The recently murdered Nagesh was in the front of the crowd. â€Å"Hey, Nagesh, how’d the rebirth go?† I asked in Sanskrit. â€Å"I must have strayed from my dharma in my last life,† Nagesh said. â€Å"I have been reincarnated, once again, as an Untouchable. And I have the same ugly wife.† â€Å"You challenged master Levi who is called Biff,† I said, â€Å"of course you didn’t move up. You’re lucky you’re not a stink bug or something. See, destruction isn’t the big favor you all thought it was.† â€Å"We brought the things you asked for.† I hopped to my feet feeling incredibly rested and energized. â€Å"Nice,† I said to Joshua. â€Å"I feel like I just had one of those strong coffees you used to make at Balthasar’s.† â€Å"I miss coffee,† said Josh. I looked at Nagesh, â€Å"I don’t suppose you†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"We have swill.† â€Å"Never mind,† I said. Then I said one of those things that as a boy growing up in Galilee, you never think you’ll hear yourself say: â€Å"Okay, Untouchables, bring me the sheep bladders!† Rumi said that the goddess Kali was served by a host of black-skinned female demons, who sometimes during the feast would bring men to corners of the altar and copulate with them as blood rained down from the goddess’s saw-tooth maw above. â€Å"Okay, Josh, you’re one of them,† I said. â€Å"What are you gonna be?† â€Å"The goddess Kali, of course. You got to be God last time.† â€Å"What last time?† â€Å"All of the last times.† I turned to my intrepid minions. â€Å"Untouchables, paint him up!† â€Å"They’re not going to buy that a burr-headed Jewish kid is their goddess of destruction.† â€Å"O ye of little faith,† I said. Three hours later we were again crouched beneath a tree near the temple of Kali. We were both dressed as women, covered from head to toe by our saris, but I was looking much lumpier under mine due to Kali’s extra arms and garland of severed heads, played tonight by painted sheep bladders filled with explosives and suspended around my neck by long strands of elephant tail hair. Any observers who might get close enough to notice my protrusions were quickly deterred by the smell coming off of Joshua and me. We had used the goo from the bottom of Rumi’s pit to paint our bodies black. I didn’t have the courage to ask what the substance had been in life, but if there was a place where they allowed vultures to ripen in the sun before pounding them into a smooth paste and mixing it with just the right amount of buffalo squat, then Rumi called it home. The Untouchables had also painted huge red rings around Joshua’s eyes, fitted him with a ropey wig of oxtails, and affixed to his torso six pert little breasts fashioned from pitch. â€Å"Stay away from any open flame. Your tits will go up like volcanos.† â€Å"Why did I have to have six and you only had to have two.† â€Å"Because I am the goddess and have to wear the garland of skulls and the extra arms.† We’d made my arms from rawhide, using my primary arms as models, then drying the molded arms in place over the fire. The women made a harness that held the extra arms in place under my own, then we painted the arms black with the same black goo. They were a little wobbly, but they were light and would look realistic enough in the dark. It was still hours from the height of the ceremony at midnight, when the children would be hacked to death, but we wanted to be there in time to stop the revelers from cutting off the children’s fingers if we could. Now, the wooden elephants were empty on their turntables, but the altar of Kali was already filling with gruesome tribute. The heads of a thousand goats had been laid on the altar before the goddess, and the blood ran slick over the stones and in the grooves that channeled it into large brass pots at the corners of the altar. Female acolytes carried the pots up a narrow ladder at the back of the great statue of Kali, then dumped them through some sort of reservoir that fed it through the goddess’s jaws. Below, by torchlight, worshipers danced in the sticky shower as the blood flowed down upon them. â€Å"Look, those women are dressed like me,† Joshua said. â€Å"Except they only have two breasts each.† â€Å"Technically, they’re not dressed, they’re painted. You make a very attractive female demon, Josh. Did I tell you that?† â€Å"This isn’t going to work.† â€Å"Of course it’s going to work.† I guessed that there were already ten thousand worshipers in the temple square, dancing, chanting, and beating drums. A procession of thirty men came down the main boulevard, each carrying a basket under his arm. As they reached the altar, each man dumped the contents of the basket over the rows of bloody goat heads. â€Å"What are those?† Joshua asked. â€Å"Those are exactly what you think they are.† â€Å"They’re not the heads of the children?† â€Å"No, I think those are the heads of strangers who happened down the road we were on before Rumi came along to pull us into the grass.† After the severed heads were dispersed across the altar, the female acolytes came out of the crowd dragging the headless corpse of a man, which they laid on the steps leading to the altar. Each one mimed having intercourse with the corpse, then rubbed their genitalia against the bloody stump of its neck before dancing away, blood and ochre dripping down the insides of their thighs. â€Å"There’s sort of a theme developing here,† I said. â€Å"I think I’m going to be sick,† Joshua said. â€Å"Mindful breath,† I said, using one of the phrases that Gaspar was always barking at us when we were learning meditation. I knew that if Joshua could stay with the yeti for days at a time without freezing to death, he could certainly conjure up the bodily control to keep from throwing up. The sheer magnitude of the carnage was all that was keeping me from vomiting. It was as if the atrocity of the whole scene couldn’t fit in my mind all at once, so I could only see just enough for my sanity and my stomach to remain intact. A shout went up in the crowd now and I could see a torch-lit sedan chair being carried above the heads of the worshipers. On it reclined a half-naked man with a tiger skin wrapped around his hips, his skin painted light gray with ashes. His hair was plaited with grease and he wore the bones of a human hand as a skullcap. Around his neck hung a necklace of human skulls. â€Å"High priest,† I said. â€Å"They aren’t even going to notice you, Biff. How can you even get their attention after they’ve seen all this?† â€Å"They haven’t seen what I’m going to show them.† As the sedan chair emerged from the crowd in front of the altar, we could see a procession following it: tied to the back of the sedan chair was a line of naked children, most of them not more than five or six, their hands tied together, a less ornately dressed priest on either side of them to steady them. The priests began to untie the children and take them to the great wooden elephants lining the boulevard. Here and there in the crowd I could see people beginning to brandish edged weapons: short swords, axes, and the long-bladed spears Joshua and I had seen over the elephant grass. The high priest was sitting on the headless corpse, shouting a poem about the divine release of Kali’s destruction or something. â€Å"Here we go,† I said, pulling the black glass dagger from under my sari. â€Å"Take this.† Joshua looked at the blade shimmering in the torchlight. â€Å"I won’t kill anyone,† he said. Tears were streaming down his cheeks, drawing long red lines through the black and if anything making him look more fierce. â€Å"That’s fine, but you’ll need to cut them loose.† â€Å"Right.† He took the knife from me. â€Å"Josh, you know what’s coming. You’ve seen it before. Nobody else here has, especially those kids. You can’t carry all of them, so they have to have enough of their wits about them to follow you. I know you can keep them from being afraid. Put your teeth in.† Joshua nodded and slipped the row of crocodile teeth attached to a piece of rawhide under his upper lip, leaving the teeth to protrude like fangs. I put in my own false fangs, then ran into the dark to circle the crowd. As I approached the rear of the altar I pulled the special torch I’d made from under my girdle of human hands. (Actually my girdle of human hands was made of dried goat’s udders stuffed with straw, but the Untouchable women had done a pretty good job as long as no one bothered to count fingers.) Through Kali’s stone legs I could see the priests tying each of the children on the trunk of a wooden elephant. As soon as the bonds were tight, each priest drew a bronze blade and held it aloft, ready to strike off a finger as soon as the high priest gave the signal. I struck the tip of my torch on the edge of the altar, screamed for all I was worth, then threw my sari off and ran up the steps as the torch burst into dazzling blue flame that trailed sparks behind me as I ran. I hopped across the array of goat heads and stood between the legs of the statue of Kali, my torch held aloft in one hand, one of my severed heads swinging by the hair in the other. â€Å"I am Kali,† I screamed. â€Å"Fear me!† It came out sort of mumbled through my fake teeth. Some of the drums stopped and the high priest turned around and looked at me, more because of the bright light of the torch than my fierce proclamation. â€Å"I am Kali,† I shouted again. â€Å"Goddess of destruction and all this disgusting crap you have here!† They weren’t getting it. The priest signaled for the other priests to come around me from the sides. Some of the female acolytes were already trying to make their way across the dance floor of decapitations toward me. â€Å"I mean it. Bow down to me!† The priests charged on. I did have the crowd’s attention, though unfortunately they weren’t cowering in fear at my angry goddessness. I could see Joshua moving around the wooden elephants, the guarding priests having left their posts to come after me. â€Å"Really! I mean it!† Maybe it was the teeth. I spit them out toward the nearest of my attackers. Running across a sea of slick, bloody heads is evidently a pretty difficult task. Not if you’ve spent the last six years of your life hopping from the top of one post to another, even in ice and snow, but for the run-of-the-mill homicidal priest, it’s a tough row to hoe. The priests and acolytes were slipping and sliding among the goat and human heads, falling over each other, smacking into the feet of the statue, one even impaling himself on a goat’s horn when he fell. One of the priests was only a few feet away from me now, trying not to fall on his own blade as he crawled over the mess. â€Å"I will bring destruction†¦oh, fuck it,† I said. I lit the fuse on the severed head I held in my hand, then swung it between my legs and tossed it in a steep arch over my head. It trailed sparks on its way into the black goddess’s open maw, then disappeared. I kicked the approaching priest in the jaw, then danced across the goat heads, leapt over the head of the high priest, and was halfway to Joshua at the first wooden elephant when Kali, with a deafening report, breathed fire out over the crowd and the top of her head blew off. Finally, I had the crowd’s attention. They were trampling each other to get away, but I had their attention. I stood in the middle of the boulevard, swinging my second severed head in a circle, waiting for the fuse to burn down before I let it sail over the heads of the receding crowd. It exploded in the air, sending a circle of flame across the sky and no doubt deafening some of the worshipers who were close. Joshua had seven of the children around him, clinging to his legs as he moved to the next elephant. Several of the priests had recovered and were storming down the steps of the altar toward me, knives in hand. I pulled another head from my garland, lit the fuse, and held it out to them. â€Å"Ah, ah, ah,† I cautioned. â€Å"Kali. Goddess of destruction. Wrath et cetera.† At the sight of the sparking fuse they stopped and began to backpedal. â€Å"Now that’s the sort of respect you should have shown before.† I started whirling the head by the hair and the priests lost all semblance of courage and turned and ran. I hurled the head back up the boulevard onto the altar, where it exploded, sending a spray of real severed goat heads in all directions. â€Å"Josh! Duck! Goat heads!† Joshua pushed the children to the ground and fell over them until the pieces settled. He glared at me a second, then went on to free the other children. I hurled three more heads into different directions and now the entire temple square was nearly deserted but for Joshua, the children, a few injured worshipers, and the dead. I had built the bombs without any shrapnel in them, so those who had been injured had been trampled in the panic and the dead were those who had already been sacrificed to Kali. I think we pulled it off without killing anyone. As Joshua led the children down the wide boulevard and out of the temple square, I covered our exit, backing down the boulevard, my last explosive head swinging in one hand, my torch in the other. Once I saw that Joshua and the children were safely away, I lit the fuse, whirled the head around and let it fly toward the black goddess. â€Å"Bitch,† I said. I was out of sight when it exploded. Joshua and I got as far as a limestone cliff overlooking the Ganges before we had to stop to let the children rest. They were tired and hungry, but mostly they were hungry, and we had brought nothing for them to eat. At least, after Joshua’s touch, they weren’t afraid, and that gave them some peace. Josh and I were too jangled to sleep, so we sat up as the children lay down on the rocks around us and snored like kittens. Joshua held Rumi’s little daughter, Vitra, and before long her face was smeared with black paint from nuzzling his shoulder. All through the night, as he rocked the child, all I heard Joshua say was, â€Å"No more blood. No more blood.† At first light we could see thousands, no, tens of thousands of people gathering at the banks of the river, all dressed in white, except for a few old men who were naked. They moved into the water and stood facing east, heads raised in anticipation, dotting the river as far as the eye could see. As the sun became a molten fingernail of light on the horizon, the muddy surface of the river turned golden. The gold light reflected off its surface onto the buildings, the shanties, the trees, the palaces, making everything in sight, including the worshipers, appear to have been gilded. And worshipers they were, for we could hear their songs from where we sat, and although we could not discern the words, we could hear that these were the songs of God. â€Å"Are those the same people from last night?† I said. â€Å"They would have to be, wouldn’t they?† â€Å"I don’t understand these people. I don’t understand their religion. I don’t understand how they think.† Joshua stood and watched the Indians bowing and singing to the dawn, looking occasionally to the face of the child that slept on his shoulder. â€Å"This is testament to the glory of God’s creation, whether these people know it or not.† â€Å"How can you say that? The sacrifices to Kali, the way the Untouchables are treated. Whatever they might believe, in practice their religion is hideous.† â€Å"You’re right. It’s not right to condemn this child because she was not born a Brahman?† â€Å"Of course not.† â€Å"Then is it right to condemn her because she is not born a Jew?† â€Å"What do you mean?† â€Å"A man who is born a gentile may not see the kingdom of God. Are we, as Hebrews, any different from them? The lambs at the temple on Passover? The wealth and power of the Sadducees while others go hungry? At least the Untouchables can reach their reward eventually, through karma and rebirth. We don’t allow any gentile to do so.† â€Å"You can’t compare what they do to God’s law. We don’t sacrifice human beings. We feed our poor, we take care of the sick.† â€Å"Unless the sick are unclean,† Joshua said. â€Å"But, Josh, we’re the chosen. It’s God’s will.† â€Å"But is it right? He won’t tell me what to do. So I’ll say. And I say, no more.† â€Å"You’re not just talking about eating bacon, are you?† â€Å"Gautama the Buddha gave the way to people of all births to find the hand of God. With no blood sacrifice. Our doors have been marked with blood for too long, Biff.† â€Å"So that’s what you think you’re going to do? Bring God to everyone?† â€Å"Yes. After a nap.† â€Å"Of course, I meant after a nap.† Joshua held the little girl so I could see her face as she slept on his shoulder. When the children awoke we led them back to their families at the pits, handing them into the arms of their mothers, who snatched each child away from us as if we were devils incarnate; they glared over their shoulders as they carried the babies back to their pits. â€Å"Grateful bunch,† I said. â€Å"They are afraid that we’ve angered Kali. And we’ve brought them another hungry mouth.† â€Å"Still. Why did they help us if they didn’t want their children back?† â€Å"Because we told them what to do. That’s what they do. What they are told. That’s how the Brahmans keep them in line. If they do what they are told, then perhaps they will not be Untouchables next life.† â€Å"That’s depressing.† Joshua nodded. We only had little Vitra to return to her father now, and I was sure that Rumi would be happy to see his daughter. His distress over losing her had basically been the reason he had saved our lives. As we came over the sandstone rise we could see that Rumi was not alone in his pit. Rumi stood on his sitting rock, stark naked, sprinkling salt on his erect member as a large humpbacked cow, which nearly filled the rest of the pit, licked at the salt. Joshua held Vitra so she faced away from the pit, then backed away, as if he didn’t want to disturb the moment of beefy intimacy. â€Å"A cow, Rumi?† I exclaimed. â€Å"I thought you people had beliefs.† â€Å"That’s not a cow, that’s a bull,† Joshua said. â€Å"Oh, that’s got to be your super-bonus abomination there. Where we come from whole cities get destroyed for that kind of thing, Rumi.† I reached over and put my hand over Vitra’s eyes. â€Å"Stay away from Daddy, honey, or you’ll turn into a pillar of salt.† â€Å"But this is my wife, reincarnated.† â€Å"Oh, don’t try that one on me, Rumi. For six years I lived in a Buddhist monastery where the only female company was a wild yak. I know from desperate.† Joshua grabbed my arm. â€Å"You didn’t?† â€Å"Relax, I’m just making a point. You’re the Messiah here, Josh. What do you think?† â€Å"I think we need to go to Tamil and find the third magus.† He set Vitra down and Rumi quickly pulled up his loincloth as the child ran to him. â€Å"Go with God, Rumi,† Joshua said. â€Å"May Shiva watch over you, you heretics. Thank you for returning my daughter.† Joshua and I gathered up our clothes and satchels, then bought some rice in the market and set out for Tamil. We followed the Ganges south until we came to the sea, where Joshua and I washed the gore of Kali from our bodies. We sat on the beach, letting the sun dry our skin as we picked pitch out of our chest hairs. â€Å"You know, Josh,† I said, as I fought a particularly stubborn gob of tar that had stuck in my armpit, â€Å"when you were leading those kids out of the temple square, and they were so little and weak, but none of them seemed afraid†¦well, it was sort of heartwarming.† â€Å"Yep, I love all the little children of the world, you know?† â€Å"Really?† He nodded. â€Å"Green and yellow, black and white.† â€Å"Good to know – Wait, green?† â€Å"No, not green. I was just fuckin’ with you.† How to cite Lamb: The Gospel According to Biff, Christ’s Childhood Pal Chapter 21, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Business Research and Communication Label Testing

Question: Describe about the Business Research and Communication for Label Testing. Answer: Does the label against animal testing influence the consumers behavior of willingness to pay Fact Sheet: Cosmetic Testing The Humane Society of United States Rubin, D. (2004) Fact Sheet: Cosmetic Testing The Humane Society of United States. British Medical Journal, 328(514). According to The Humane Society, the cosmetic manufacturing companies can ensure the customers that their product is not tested on love animals by letting customers know with a written prove. Nowadays cosmetic products have it written on their labels that their product is not tested on live animals. This type of labels gives people an assurance that they are using products which are not stained with dead animals blood. There are so many ways to test the products before launching it in the market. They can ensure that their product is a safety by using thousands of ingredients that are used for experiments. Moreover, they can also do one thing that will not need the step of experiments. They can use eco-friendly products that will not affect the human body parts in any way. Using chemicals not only produces harmful remnants but also poses a greater tendency to have hazardous side effects. Use of chemicals also causes pollution of the earth tremendously. They also have got the option do the experiments which will not involve the live animals. In the present days, there are many ways of no animal testing available in the market. So the experimentalists should opt for these methods rather than animal testing. Death: The Price of Beauty: Animal Testing and the Cosmetics Industry by Kelly Renz Mcneal Mcneal, K.R. (1999). Death. The Price Of Beauty: Animal Testing And The Cosmetics Industry. It is very true that the price of beauty is death. People just want to be fully selfish. And the manufacturers are more concerned about their own sales and products. The poor animals who does not even know the meaning of cosmetics is being brutally treated with harsh chemicals just for the sake of experimentation. The company products should be labeled "warning" if they have any problems with the product. It is a very moral issue. Business is important but not at cost of anybody's lives. That also a business that uses the heat and patience. The Hidden Costs of Sexier Lipstick: Animal Testing in the Cosmetic Industry 1999 year has brought the death of death of many animals. Animal testing in cosmetic industry is a crime in most of the developing countries. There are many wild animals which are being hunted for such experiments. This is not right. And we being human, this is not expected from us. Earlier from the middle 0f, the society animal experimentation was highly in the run. There was no other way as if. It took a long way run to explain to people that experiments on the live animal are not only painful but also deadly. It takes away the lives of many unnecessary animals for no reason at all. It is not that condition where if a person uses any animal injured then he or she can go and get it cured, this is a condition where purposely and intentionally animals are brutally killed. The government has already imposed laws and regulations from violating the rules of experimental approaches. Product Testing: Toxic and Tragic: (April 21, 2005) Animal used for experimentation PETA Pawlowski, J. (2015). PETA fuels animal lab improvements.Science, 347(6224), pp.834-834. Many animals are caged and kept in isolation for the sake of experimentation and research. Not all animals used for these purpose, animals such as cats, mice, dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and many other animals who can be kept in cages in closed rooms are used for experimentation and research values. They feel lonely and isolated in the cages in the laboratories. Not only in cosmetic manufacturing companies they are used but they are also used in many other manufacturing companies. They should not be used for such purposes as this affects their not only physical health but also deteriorates their mental status. They lose the morality of life. This is a very inhuman deed in the case of the human clans. It is a very painful deed to do. They should not be used for any such works, as they are also living organism and they also have their own way of ecological life to lead. Cosmetics tested on animals to be banned in Australia- Herald Sun 2nd June, 2016 Smethurst, A. (2016) Cosmetics tested on animals to be banned in Australia. Herald Sun. Recently it has been decided by the Federal law that all products that have been found to be tested on animals in their laboratories will be banned from stores. From this year July only this law has been applicative in here. No products from tested animals will be allowed in the stores. But the government has been lenient enough not to throw away the existing products from the shelves but this law will be applicable only the new upcoming products. As at one go, it was not possible to ban animal testing in all sectors of manufacturing company. But mainly it is the cosmetics company which have to avoid the experimentation on animals. Till now only the drugs company and experiments related to the medical sector can be done. The RSPCA says that many cosmetic companies like Johnson, Revlon were involved in animal experimentations in their laboratories. Ethical cosmetics bill 2016 Chun, R. (2014). What Holds Ethical Consumers to a Cosmetics Brand: The Body Shop Case.Business Society, 55(4), pp.528-549. Ethical Bill 2016 Australia amends the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 some new offenses with regards to the testing of live animals for cosmetic experiments. It has also opted for the stopping of animal tested cosmetics importing into the country. The manufacturing of live animals tested products is also banned in Australia. Not only that it has also banned and stopped the process of testing on live animals for and experimental purpose. It is a legal that made harsh execution over the law in Australia now. And if anybody violates this law then they are to be severely punished by law or imposed with huge fines. It is very true that these experiments cause severe drawbacks in the ecology as it kills calls handicaps many innocent animals unnecessarily. This inhuman activity should be banned only as it has no right to spoil the lives of innocent just for the good being of human beings. This proves the selfish character of human beings. Hence it is really a good attempt by the Australian Law.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

A Christmas Memory and Money Essays

A Christmas Memory and Money Essays A Christmas Memory and Money Essay A Christmas Memory and Money Essay Essay Topic: A Christmas Carol Money can buy a lot of things but it cannot buy good health, respect, love, inner peace etc as these only come from good principles. A person can have million in his bank account but still feel poor because he is not content with his life, more money gives him only minimal satisfaction. Security come from within from knowing that what you have is enough for you to be happy, it comes from believing in your self. All of us tend to think that happiness comes from outside i. . through money. A short story that supports this notion is A Christmas Memory by Truman Capote it is the tory of a child who does not get anything for Christmas except handed down and worn out except for a kite but he is still satisfied and goes out to fly it. In another instance was when the family was offered money for a new Christmas tree but they refused it believing that their old tree was more precious and nothing could replace it. Both these examples reflect the importance of contentment and satisfaction over money. First and foremost, money is a medium of exchange. You use it to buy things. No one can live without money. We need to buy food and many basic necessities of life which are impossible to be bought without money. A rich man is seen in the society with respect and people around carry an honorable position for that man whereas a poor person is seen by people with the eyes of hatred and they do not poses a good impression. Mostly all of us try to be as rich as others and compete in this modern age, but only a few people are able to fulfill their dreams about being a millionaire, The importance of money becomes very clear when a person has no money, Money for a poor person is everything, it becomes very important for him to earn so that he can fulfill his basic needs. However, recently everyone has become consumption oriented. We want to buy anything that is new on the market and catches our interest and we are falling prey to the attractive packaging and advertisiments of a product. Thus we buy things that we have little need for which in turn makes us want more money. Money enables us to afford a better quality of life; more money means bigger and better houses and cars, better quality products, better entertainment etc. Another advantage is less stress in paying bills and other household expenses. Money may also allow a person to persue his dreams, for example a person who wants to attain higher education may not be able to without money. Literature also supports this in many places, one such example is where Charles Dickens in another Novel A Christmas Carol'[2] shows how love is pushed aside for money. This happens when young Ebenzer Scrooge had made a promise to a girl Belle to provide for her, however Belle chooses a crooked businessman Jacob as he offers her a quick gain of fortune to the girl. A number of quotations from the book the great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald[3] also highlight the importance of money. One such quote mentioned the effect that money has on Gatsby when he is unable to even speak in front of Daisy Buchnan as he gets intimidated by her wealth. This shows how wealth encompasses every aspect of our lives, so much so that it even reflects in the voice and mannerisms of a person. Another description from the same book is about a character Tom whose wealth has given him a lot of power. It allows him to treat others how ever he likes and his elitist nature also makes him power. Money may be a motivator it influences human activity from geological exploration to politics. Money itself may not be evil, it is the greed for money that becomes the root of evil. Despite popular arguments I believe that money does not make the world go around. we have created the monster and allowed it to take over and control our lives. 4]Even though money does have some importance in our lives as every aspect of our lives revolves around money, but if we tried to be content with less we may not face such dependency. The variety of products that we are faced with makes it very difficult for us to be content with what we have. We have made money so central to our lives that we place it above life and even happiness. This never ending pursuit of money has made the society a selfish one . People forget that there are many things that money cant buy. A Chinese proverb summarizes this argument very well by saying that money can buy a house but it cannot make a home, that it can not buy time, sleep knowledge, health, respect and a good life only the material aspects can be bought but not ones that come from within. Stephen R. Covey in his book seven habits of highly effective people also mentions that some of us tend to be centered around money and so our sense of security and happiness is directly related to how much money we have and since its human nature to never be satisfied with what one has he is likely to remain unhappy most of the time. Even a huge increase in wealth is unlikely to satisfy such a person. For this purpose we need to alter our centres to what we really want at the end of our lives. Money can buy a lot of things but it cannot buy good health, respect, love, inner peace etc as these only come from good principles. A person can have million in his bank account but still feel poor because he is not content with his life, more money gives him only minimal satisfaction. Security come from within from knowing that what you have is enough for you to be happy, it comes from believing in your self. All of us tend to think that happiness comes from outside i. e. through money. A short story that supports this notion is A Christmas Memory by Truman Capote it is the story of a child who does not get anything for Christmas except handed down and worn out except for a kite but he is still satisfied and goes out to fly it. In another instance was when the family was offered money for a new Christmas tree but they refused it believing that their old tree was more precious and nothing could replace it. Both these examples reflect the importance of contentment and satisfaction over money.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Returning Canadian Residents Bringing Alcohol into Canada

Returning Canadian Residents Bringing Alcohol into Canada There are some very specific rules and regulations about bringing duty-free alcohol back into Canada from another country. Not only will you need to be aware of the type and quantity of alcohol, but you also need to know when the alcohol was purchased during your trip. Personal Exemptions Based on How Long You Have Been Outside the Country If you’ve been gone less than 24 hours there are no personal exemptions.If you’ve been gone 24 hours or more you can claim goods up to CAN$200 without paying duty and taxes. Unfortunately, alcoholic beverages are not included in this amount.If you’ve been gone for 48 hours or more, you can claim goods up to CAN$800 without paying duty and taxes. Some alcoholic beverages are included in this exemption. You must have the goods with you when you enter Canada. Returning Canadian Residents Duty-Free Allowance for Alcohol If you are a Canadian resident or a temporary resident of Canada returning from a trip outside Canada, or a former Canadian resident returning to live in Canada, you are allowed to bring a small quantity of alcohol (wine, liquor, beer or coolers) into the country without having to pay duty or taxes as long as: the alcohol accompanies youyou meet the minimum legal drinking age for the province or territory in which you enter Canadayou have been outside Canada for more than 48 hours. You may bring in one of the following: 1.5 liters (50.7 US ounces) of wine, including wine coolers over 0.5 percent alcohol, or1.14 liters (38.5 US ounces) of liquor, ora total of 1.14 liters (38.5 US ounces) of wine and liquor, or24 x 355 milliliter (12 ounce) cans or bottles of beer or ale, including beer coolers over 0.5 percent alcohol (a maximum of 8.5 liters or 287.4 US ounces). Bringing More Than the Duty-Free Allowance of Alcohol Into Canada Except in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, returning Canadian residents may bring in more than the personal allowances of liquor listed above as long as you pay customs and province/territory assessments. The amounts you are allowed to bring into Canada are also limited by the province or territory in which you enter Canada. For details on specific amounts and rates, contact the liquor control authority for the appropriate province or territory before you come to Canada. Shipping Alcohol When You Move Back to Canada If you are a former Canadian resident moving back to Canada and you want to ship alcohol to Canada (the contents of your wine cellar for example), contact the liquor control authority for the appropriate province or territory to pay the provincial or territorial fees and assessments in advance. To have your shipment released when you arrive in Canada, you will need to show the receipt for the provincial or territory fees and assessments and you will also need to pay the applicable federal customs assessments. Customs Contact Information If you have questions or require more information on bringing alcohol into Canada, please contact the Canada Borders Services Agency.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Social Media - Facebook Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Social Media - Facebook - Essay Example Facebook service, created by Mark Zuckerberg, was launched in 2004. At the time of its launch, the sole purpose of the service was to help Harvard University’s students in educational matters. However, it gradually started expanding to other universities as well. Alba and Stay mention that â€Å"Facebook is a networking platform† (24). Today, Facebook has become one of the widely used networking services, having nearly 800 million users all over the world. The name ‘Facebook’ is indebted to the university administrators in the USA, who used to provide books to their students to know each other in a better way. The thesis statement of this paper is that ‘Facebook is beneficial because it connects people’. However, some people think that Facebook does not help people establish any real relationship. My personal point of view over the issue is in accord with the statement that Facebook is beneficial for people. The influence of Facebook can be eva luated as beyond a website, but as an innovative tool to measure one’s social acceptability and the ability to mingle with the masses without any inhibition or inferiority complex. Claim 1: Facebook enables interaction between people from different backgrounds, cultures, and countries. Evidence: Everyone above the age of 12 can join Facebook. There is no limitation of gender, class, race, or social status. Facebook provides facility to the people to know each other and develop healthy relationships. Facebook, like international brotherhood, extends to other spheres an innovative platform to communicate with friends and meet new people, exchange valuable information, spend leisure time in a more useful way, new experiences, view videos and games, as well as regular updating of relationships. Claim 2: Facebook enables political interaction between people. People can share information and opinions on both international and domestic politics with each other. Evidence: The recent revolutions in Egypt, Jordan, and other Islamic countries are an authentic evidence of political interaction through Facebook. Today, politicians make use of social networking websites to launch their political campaigns. Politicians address the public through these websites and communicate their passion and ideas regarding development of their specific nations. The common thought about Facebook is that these websites enable fast and secure global interactions not only for the public, but also for the politicians. Many politicians use these websites to create virtual presence and to share their thoughts and ideas with prospective voters. Social networking websites played a great role in the political success of Barack Obama. People shared their views with each other and created over 50,000 events on the websites to bring success to Obama’s campaign. Political interaction between the voters and the politicians has also become easier through social networking websites. Voters c an easily share information with each other in order to decide whom they should vote in elections. Politicians can make people aware of their political agendas in order to convince them and to get their support in elections. Almost half of the picture of the election results can be seen through the favorite politicians’ statistics available on Facebook and other social networking websites. Claim 3: Facebook establishes long lasting relationships between people, such as marriages, friendships, and business relationships. Evidence: It is evident from the social researches that Facebook helps people find good life partners to live with. People are also able to find suitable businesses partners.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Arab Spring Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Arab Spring - Essay Example One of the obvious the arguments that could have caused the Arab Spring is the citizens’ anger with the old and dictatorial government regimes. Those who argue on these bases claim that the Middle East and North Africa world has a long history of a scuffle for political change, from leftist factions to Islamist radicals. But the Arab Spring that started in 2011 could never have evolved if things were better then. The revolution could not have turned into a mass phenomenon that has produced about quarter a million loss of lives and millions of refugees had it not been for the widespread dissatisfaction with a dictatorial regime(Haas et al, 56). The argument can be advanced by the fact that the economic crisis which was one of the causes of the uprising could have stabilized over time under a credible and competent government, but by late 20th century, most Arab dictatorships led by Muammar al-Qaddafi, Hosni Mubarak, Ben Ali were utterly bankrupt both morally and ideologically. When the Arab Spring occurred in 2011, Muammar al-Qaddafi had been in power in Libya for 42 years, Egyptian dictator Hosni Mubarak had been in power for 1980 while Tunisia’s Ben Ali from 1987. Furthermore, the leaders did not upload any human right that continuously angered the citizens for years basing on the way they even took power in the first place. For instance, Al-Kaddafi and Hosni Mubarak who were some of the oldest leaders in the world prior to the Arab Spring ruled through dictatorship.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds Analysis

Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds Analysis Manganese is a first row transition metal that has varies type of oxidation states when it appears as a compound. The oxidation range is from Mn(-III) till Mn(VII). This has shown that the compounds of manganese range in the oxidation number have a different of 10 electrons. The experiment 1 that we have done is changing oxidation state of manganese(II) chloride to an acetylacetonemanganese(III) with an oxidizing agent potassium permanganate. However, the main target compound that we are interested in this experiment 1 is the characterize complexes of 2 metal ions with the anion of acetylacetone. This compound is actually a typical a-diketone that can ionize in an aqueous solution as a weak acid. This is the main reason that the acetylacetonate anion will serve as a ligand towards metal ion and form new complexes. The ligand will bond to the metal through 2 oxygen atoms to form a six-membered ring. These six-membered rings (MO2C3) are in a planar shape and it is a weak aromatic. This is due to that they contain 6 Ï€ electrons. Thus, in the complexes of stoichiometry M(acac)3, there will be in a few different shapes. Such as the MO6 array is octahedral, for Cu(acac)2, the CuO4 group will be in square planar, and lastly for VO(acac)2, the VO5 group is in square pyramidal. As a result, the complexes are neutral in charge and they may be isolated as crystalline solids with interesting variety of colors. The equation for this experiment will be: MnCl2 + 4H2O → [Mn(H2O)4]Cl2 [Mn(H2O)4]Cl2 + 2HC5H7O2 + 2NaC2H3O2 → Mn(C5H7O2)2 + 2NaCl + 2HC2H3O2 Mn(C5H7O2)2 + KMnO4 + 7HC5H7O2 + HC2H3O2 → 5Mn(C5H7O2)3 + KC2H3O2 + 4H2O Cobalt is also another transition element that we are using in this experiment to form a coordination complexes. The cobalt 2+ ion is more stable than the cobalt 3+ ion for simple salts of cobalt. Therefore, there are only a few salts that are form with Co(II). However, the forming of complexes will eventually have a more stable oxidation state compare to the oxidation state of Co(II). In octahedral coordinated complexes, the number of complexes appears in a very stable conformation. Werner coordination complexes are compounds that formed between a transition metal ions and variety of organic and inorganic ions or neutral molecules. For both chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride and tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) also forms the octahedral coordination. In these complexes, it contains of six ligands (L) and a central atom (M) at the apices of an octahedron. For this experiment, the equation will be written as: Co2+ + NH4+ + 1/2H202 → [Co(NH3)5H2O]3+ [Co(NH3)5H2O]3+ + 3Cl- → [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 + H2O Vanadium is also a transition element where it also exits in a variety of oxidation states which is from -3 to +5. Each of it undergoes a wide variety of chemistry depends on the electronic and steric nature of the coordinating ligands of it. For an example, in a higher oxidation states, vanadium is very oxophilic, but at low oxidation states, the Ï€-donating ligands such as dinitrogen and carbon monoxide are preferred. Therefore, the +4 and +5 states for vanadium are more important in biological reactions. The vanadium(IV) is dominated by the stable oxovanadium (VO2+) cation that remains intact during many reactions. While the deoxygenation of oxovanadium(IV) complexes to form a six-coordinate vanadium(IV) complexes will usually enhances their reactivity. In this situation, vanadium that is also a strong oxidizing agent will actually undergo redox in high possibilities when it involve in the reaction with organic molecules. Majority of vanadium(IV) complexes depend upon oxovanadium ion VO2+ complexes and the color for it is generally green or blue-green. This compound has oxygen atoms coordinating in the equatorial plane where the apical coordination will be the oxo group that complete the square pyramidal geometry coordination. It acts as a good precursor and undergoes ligand exchange reaction where one or both of the acetlyacetonato groups can easily be exchanged with organic ligands that having coordinating of different potentialities. For both of the complexes above is all in hexacoordinate with octahedral. However, there are many examples of coordination chemistry with coordination numbers from 3 to 9. Pentacoordinate complexes are much less common than either tetra- or hexacoordinate. This is more common for some metals, compound with one oxidation state and some others rare compound. There are mainly two types of geometries for it which is trigonal bipyramidal and square pyramidal. The bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) is our product in this experiment 3. In this experiment, the equation for it can be written as: V2O5 + 2H2SO4 + EtOH 2VOSO4 + 3H2O + CH3CHO VOSO4 + 2HC5H7O2 + Na2CO3 VO(C5H7O2)2 + Na2So4 + H2O + CO2 Discussion: Interpretation of IR spectrum for tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III): Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 1635.2 1506.5 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C) stretching -(C=CH) deformation 1386.9 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3)- symmetric C-H deformation 1255.6 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C) stretching -(C-CH3) stretching 1014.8 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3) out-of plane bending 924.5 -relative intensity : strong -(C-CH3) stretching 785.6 -relative intensity : strong -(C-H)deformation 678.1 -relative intensity : medium/ strong -(C-CH3)stretching,(O=C-CH3) deformation -(Mn-O) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond 458.3 relative intensity : weak (C=C) stretching,(C-CH3) stretching -(Mn-O) stretching that also indicatesmetal-ligand bond Interpretation of IR spectrum for bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV): Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 1559.0 1532.9 -relative intensity : medium (C=O) stretching -( C=C),(C=CH) stretching 1419.0 -relative intensity : medium -(CH3) deformation 1374.3 1357.9 -relative intensity : strong -(C=O) stretching -(CH3) deformation mode 1287.0 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C=C) stretching 997.4 -relative intensity : strong and sharp -stretching of V=O bond -it also indicates the metal-ligand bond.(1) 1021.7 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3) rocking 937.0 -relative intensity : strong -(C-CH3) stretching -(C=O) stretching 798.7 -relative intensity : medium -(C-H) out-of-plane bending 686.0 657.1 -relative intensity : medium/ weak -(ring) deformation out-of-plane bending for: 609.6 -(ring) deformation Interpretation of IR spectrum for chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride: Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 1635.0 1559.0 -relative intensity : medium -degenerate asymmetric NH3stretching 1304.8 -relative intensity : strong -symmetric NH3angle deformation 837.7 -relative intensity : strong -NH3rocking 669.2 -(Co-N) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond(1) 486.2 -(Co-Cl) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond(1) There are suppose to have a symmetric NH3 stretch, 3169.3 cm-1 and an asymmetric NH3 stretch, 3289.3 cm-1 in the IR spectrum. These two spectrums are important to prove that there are two different chemical conditions for this NH3 ligand in this complex. This condition is actually due to the distortion geometry by chloride ligand. From 3 of the IR spectrum that we had obtains is that we are able to identify two error in it. First is the peak that going upwards at the region between 2000 cm-1 and 2500 cm-1. This error is due to the FT-IR spectrometry error as it can be shown in the comparison between the second IR spectrums that read by another spectrometry. Then, the following error is the very strong H2O that is mixed within the compound when we are doing the tablets. This very strong H2O is within the range of 3200 cm-1 to 3800 cm-1 region. Magnetic susceptibility Diamagnetic If the intensity of magnetization is negative, the material is said to be diamagnetic. This works when the density of lines that force inside the sample is less than that outside in this material. When it placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field will tend to move to the region of lowest field. The repulsion that forms from the field will then produce energy in it. So, it is an endothermic process. Magnitude of the attractive force increase with the number of unpaired electrons that contain in the transition metal ion. Thus, the complexes that having a single unpaired d electron will interact less strongly with a magnetic field compared with complexes that have two unpaired electrons. So, complexes that contain no unpaired electrons are said to be diamagnetic and it is only weakly repelled by magnetic field. The figure is also very small as order of -1 to -10010-6 c.g.s e.m.u. In addition, it does not depend in the field strength and independent on temperature. In this experiment, th e chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride is a diamagnetic compound. The chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride has d6 electron configuration that is high spin. It is zero for the unpaired electrons in the orbital.(100) Paramagnetic If the intensity of magnetization of a paramagnetic is positive, hence ÃŽ ´w/ÃŽ ´H is negative and such a material will tend to move regions of maximum field strength since this is an exothermic process. The figure for the paramagnetic susceptibility is large and relative large as fall within the range of 100 to 100,00010-6 c.g.s e.m.u. In addition, it does not depend on magnetic field strength but do depend on temperature. Paramagnetic is a consequence of the interaction of and the spinangular momenta of unpaired electrons with the applied field. Complexes that have no unpaired electron in the orbital will have a magnetic moment that is as strong as it will attract each other stronger in the field. Thus this compound is paramagnetic. In this experiment, the bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) and tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) is a paramagnetic compound. The tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) has a d4 low spin of electron configuration with twp unpaired electrons. For the bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) has a d3 electron configuration that has 2 unpaired electrons within the orbital. So, this eventually states that both of the products are paramagnetic. (100) The Shape of the Compounds The shape for the bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) is actually in a shape of square pyramidal as I had mention in the introduction. The formation of a square pyramidal complex is due to the ligand that influences it. The steric effect between vanadium and the other oxygen bonding will tend to have competed among each other for the spacing with the other ligands in the metal bonding orbital. This effect can be observed in the decrease in the IR stretching frequency of the VO bond when there is a sixth ligand coordinates trans to oxygen. (9) The shape for penta is in Werner coordination as I have mention also in the introduction. It means that it is in an octahedron shape with a 6 coordination numbers. The ground state for octahedral complexes Mn(acac)3 which is the product of our experiment 1 of is a 5Eg (t2g 3eg1) position. The black manganese(III) acetylacetonate complex that which is the product of our experiment usually has an octahedral configuration. there actually exists of the Jahn teller distortion. Thus, it will be not a pure octahedral conformation. Then, it will have two forms for this compounds where one is with substantial tetrahedral elongation where two Mn-O bonds at 212 pm, and four at 193 pm and the other with moderate tetragonal compression where the two Mn-O bonds at 195 pm and four at 200 pm. Namely, The room temperature effective magnetic moments of the manganese(III) complexes with mixed ligands are in the range of 4.76-4.9 ÃŽ ¼B, which corresponds to four unpaired electrons typical of the d4 system. It is supposed that in mixed-ligand complexes the ligand has localized Ï€-bond and do not favor electron-pairing. The Jahn-Teller effect due to an unequal filling up of t2g and eg orbital yields a distorted octahedral geometry in complex. These complexes have a dark green to green color. The proposed structures of the complexes shown in Fig 3 are consistent with the related data (5).

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Roman Gladiators

The Gladiators in general were either condemned criminals, prisoners of war, slaves brought for the purpose of the games and people who volunteered on their own will. The gladiatorial games reached their peak between the 1st century BCE and the 2nd century CE. Men who committed a capital crime were sent to the gladiatorial arena without a weapon defending themselves with their bare hands. The men who did not commit a capital crime were sent to training schools called Ludi. The earliest training schools were in Campania. At these schools they did not teach them to kill people but instead taught them to disable and capture their opponent. Criminals who trained in the schools were allowed to pick their own weapon and defence. If they survived a couple of years without dying they would receive freedom. The gladiators had to do what their owners (Lanista) told them to do otherwise they would be punished either by no food or beaten up. The gladiators were given adequate food supplies eating 3-4 times a day and received medical care. The Roman militaries success in war meant a big haul in of prisoners of war for the use in the gladiatorial games. Men who entered the games by free will had to take an oath in which they had to agree to the consequences of the game. This oath was: Being branded. Being chained. Being killed by an iron weapon. To pay for their food and drink they received with their blood and to suffer things even if they did not wish to. In the morning season of the games the Bestiarii or combatants who were taught to fight against animals were sent into the ring to fend for their lives against animals such as lions, tigers and bulls. Thousands of animals were slaughtered due to this proceeding. After these battles, unlucky men who had committed capital crimes were executed in front of the whole crowd by a sword. The winner of the gladiator battles received a palm branch form the editor. If he was outstanding he may even receive a laurel crown and money but the most sought-after award was the wooden training sword or staff given by the editor. There were many different types of gladiators. The Thracian gladiators were prisoners who were sent to Capua to train for the games in amphitheatres. Their uniform consisted of light leather for the body, little helmet, light shoes and a small round shield. They were trained to run around their opponents this is why they only had light gear. They had great mobility and stamina. Reziarius were equipped with a long net which was used to trip and trap their opponents, a fuscina (trident) which was their offensive weapon. They also had a small dagger which they used to give the final blow. They wore leather for protection and no helmet or shield to deflect their opponents strikes this is why they had to by agile and fit. The Dimacheri had two short swords and only two short leather arm guards to protect themselves. Speed was their speciality, they ran around their opponent and quickly evaded them making the opponent tired before killing him. Sannita were part of the heavy uniform gladiators. They wore a metal plate to protect the chest a long shield, a helmet with a grid to cover the eyes and a long sword to attack. These gladiators were slow but effective within the ring. The Generic gladiators had no particular skill they were used to fill up the space when the event went the whole day or more. Other types of gladiators include the Provocatores, Sesterziarii, Catervrii, Mirmillion, Essedarii, Paegnaria (dwarfs). The weapons of the gladiators consist of fascina(harpoon), galea(visored helmet), galerus(metal shoulder piece), gladius(sword), hasta(lance), iaculum(net), manicae(leather elbow or wrist bands),parma(round shield) ,scutum(large shield) and sica(curved scimitar).

Friday, January 10, 2020

Admission Services – Admission Essay

Everybody in life faces some challenges and difficulties which become a learning experience for them for future situations. We, humans, learn through our mistakes and the experiences that we go through. I have had such an experience at a very young age and it has enabled me to be around people with different cultural backgrounds and who share different views.When I was about ten years old, I had gone to America. Without any knowledge of what I would get to see and no hold on English I was afraid of how I will meet people and be able to communicate. I thought that since I’m different I will be treated differently and not accepted so easily. When a people do not know what is in store for them, they have an unreasonable or innate fear of being rejected or feel that they might not be socially accepted. I felt the same way when I went to America.however I decided that I will not let the barrier of language and knowledge about the country make my time here difficult, I decided to le arn the language, meet people, ask them anything I didn’t know or couldn’t understand. When I started being open and accepting towards the people, I realized that o got the same response. I was welcomed and embraced with love and respect.If I ever go anywhere to study now, I will be able to make friends more easily and be more social and outgoing. This will in return help me be more knowledgeable and free to be myself. When I had not gone to America, I had a fear of being socially unaccepted, but that experience had made me a more confident person and I’m no more shy and hesitant in my nature.This confidence boost was what I needed in life and this experience will surely help me when I go for further studies and external or foreign education programs. Admission services – Admission Essay This paper aims to tell about an external influence (a person, an event, etc.) that affected me and how it caused me to change direction based on     Newton’s First Law of Motion which states that an object in motion tends to stay in motion in the same direction unless acted upon by an external force.America is said to be the land of opportunities and indeed it is true as I now find myself wanting to become a bigger person in my dreams and accomplishments compared when I was in Korea. My coming to America I believe, have really allowed me to see a bigger and different world which changed my direction in life.The land of opportunities must be therefore closely associated to the world of business and that is where I want to go. This is motivating me therefore to pursue a study in business.I would like to believe that the world of business is governed by rules and laws which one must understand if one wants to venture into it.   Having the economic issues such as recession and lowering of interest rates by the Federal Reserve of the United States are not easy to understand and could not be easily learned by experience.Although it is said that experience is the best teacher, I would like to believe that having a formal education when business has become more globalized is the better route to faster learning if one wants to succeed in business.Given the big and complicated world of business I am motivated to become one of its players or participants in the future to come. I am looking forward therefore into putting my own business as one of the great ends after perhaps spending good experience from employment.I believe that the undergraduate business program of the University of Southern California[1] would help me to attain my dream to become successful in the field of business considering its name and experience as a university.I believe that the success of America as an economic power lies also in the academic freedom enjoyed by the schools and unive rsities     in bestowing the best kind of education to its students. If my coming to America has indeed caused me to change direction based on  Ã‚   Newton’s First Law of Motion, I believe that enrolling in one of its famous universities must be a great step to benefit from that change that would allow me to be what I want.I have the highest hope of nurturing my dreams in America and I believe I am adaptable to the change.   At a certain sense I believe I am one of the fortunate foreigners who would be able to make it here in America. The fact that I see the opportunities must be a strong indication of my leading to my long-term success.I therefore agree with Charles Darwin when he said that survival will belong not to the strongest and not even to the most intellectual but to those who would be most able to adapt to change.Reference:University of Southern California (2007), Undergraduate Degree Program, {www document} URL,  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.usc.edu/dept/publicat ions/cat2007/undergraduate/degree_programs_list.html, Accessed January 23, 2008 [1] University of Southern California (2007), Undergraduate Degree Program, {www document} URL,  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.usc.edu/dept/publications/cat2007/undergraduate/degree_programs_list.html, Accessed January 23, 2008

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The Factors That Have Led To Financial Crisis - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1818 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? The world had faced two major financial disasters during 20th century. The first crisis happened during 1920-30, which mainly affected the developed countries like Europe and America. Second crisis started in 1997 and stayed till 1999, mainly affected developing economies of Asia pacific. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Factors That Have Led To Financial Crisis" essay for you Create order The recent financial crisis which has awakened the whole world mainly resulted from unregulated financial market. It has created serious anxiety because it falls outwards from U.S, the starting point. Alan Greenspan recently called it a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“once-in-a-century credit tsunamià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, born of a collapse deep inside the US housing sector. In order to avoid complete meltdown, governments and central banks worked day and night. Trillions of dollars have been allocated to financial institutions by the governments to recover from the crisis in the United States alone Who were the culprits of financial crisis? It is impossible to held just single factor responsible for such a big mass in the absence of other factors. In my research i want to analyse the contribution of each factor but the questions arise in my mind is How did Lehman Brother, the fourth largest investment bank in USA failed? Why majority of financial institutions failed in compare to other institutions? This surly point towards irresponsible activities by financial institutions in their main business à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"LENDINGà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. So focus of my research is to find out the dominant role of easy lending in present crisis along with other factors. The effect of financial crisis 2008 was such sever that even allocating huge amount to address the issues proven insufficient to resolve it. Congress approved $700 billion in response to the problem. Federal reserve spend $1.3 trillion to bail out markets and institution that includes investments in risky assets, loans to bankrupt institutions, sharing such debt which were defaulting at faster rates (Morris, 2008). A further $900 billion were allocated as lending to large corporations (Aversa, 2008), reaching the total of nearly $3 trillion as bailout package so far, without even adding the big amount of corporate debt promised by the U.S government year before the crisis An understanding of the root causes of this à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“colossal failureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? that has put à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the entire financial systemà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ at riskà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Woellert and Kopecki, 2008) is necessary to avoid such failures in the future. Number of factors can be held responsible for financial crisis which emerged over number of years. Causes proposed include the following sub-prime mortgages/ easy lending Poor credit rating Failure of regulators Shadow banking Securitization Credit default swap Mortgage backed securities Assets backed commercial paper etc . Aims and Objective Aim of this research is to understand the root causes of financial crisis particularly lending practises as a major factor. Objective To explore the history of financial crisis To evaluate who were the victims and culprits of financial crisis Impact of financial crisis on other countries (UK, USA, India, Japan) What steps are being taken by government to overcome crisis What could be done to prevent repetition of crisis in future? Literature Review: How did we get to this point? Surprisingly it all started from residential mortgages in the U.S. It had become apparent from 2004 that mortgages issued to majority of consumers did not make any rational sense. Situation was more worsted by so called mortgage brokers who issued mortgages to many insolvent consumers in order to generate outsized fees. On other hand new financial vehicles called mortgage-backed securities (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“MBSà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?) rated by well know credit rating agencies were introduced by Wall Street. These high yielding mortgage-backed securities were bought by investors from all over the world which increased funding for new mortgages. Appraiser ignored all rules to meet the increasing demand of mortgage applications. Federal Reserve board appointed by congress in 1994 to regulate mortgage lenders decided to watch the game from pavilion. Finally as the bubble accelerates, there is necessary reckoning à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" house prices collapsed. This is how g reediness and irresponsibility resulted into a biggest financial crisis (Schmudde, 2008). Sub-prime mortgages which are always blamed for financial crisis is only a component of the deeper problem. The value of credit default swaps, which was originally estimated to be $55 trillion by the securities and exchange ( 4 times higher then the actual figure) are totally unregulated and majority of them were contracted over the phone without any verification, is the root cause from which all the problems of crisis started (Simon, 2008). Regulators had forecasted the problem of present crisis years in advance were not taken seriously because of the successful business by the same financial institutions which are either bankrupt or funded by the government (Associated Press, 2008). According to Bernanke (2009) and Portes (2009) global imbalances are the fundamental cause of the crisis and it is not possible to fully understand present crisis without considering the issue of global imba lances. As per Jagannathan, Kapoor, and Schaumberg (2009) imbalances in labour supply can assist to understand the present crisis. Acharya and Richardson(2009), and Acharya and Schnabl (2009) argue that banks were suppose to transfer the risks to end investors while securitising, particularly in the case of asset-backed commercial paper and purchase of AAA-rated tranches but they never did which led them to huge pool of credit risks. Schmudde (2009) documents that no verification of consumerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s income were done while issuing sub-prime mortgages. Many of them were issued for or close to 100% of the house price. Even borrowers with bad credit history easily managed to get mortgages. This is one of the reasons for huge growth in subprime mortgages which increased from $35 billion to $807 billion between1995 to 2005. According to Bartlett (2008) decline of US subprime mortgage triggered the crisis, the impact of the down fall was tremendous; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Mark-to-marke t losses on mortgage backed securities, collateralized debt obligations, and related assets through March 2008 were approximate $945 billion.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? He further said that it is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The largest financial loss in historyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, in compared to $780 billion of 1990 Japanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s banking crisis, lost accrued from Asian crisis of 1997-98 about $420 billion. . While explaining the reason how did this crisis turn into a global crisis, Khatiwada and McGirr (2008) stated à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Many of these Sub-prime mortgages actually never made it on the balance sheets of the lending Institutions that originated themà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?; and such mortgages by rating them high were made attractive to world investors, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“when sub-prime borrowers failed to repay their mortgages, the originating institution needed to finance the foreclosure with their own money, bringing the asset back on its balance sheet. This left many banks in a financially unviable situati on, in a rather short, unmanageable timeframeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. According to Mian and Sufi (2008) increased demand for mortgage backed securities led to lending boom which is the root cause of present crisis. Whalen (2008) argues that three main factors are at the root of the problem. First, many companies, banks, and government agencies were encouraged to increase the viability of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“affordable housingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? by introducing à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“creative financing techniquesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. Second, big number of over-the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"counter derivatives and securities were issued by majority of financial institutions due to huge support by the regulators, led to a breakdown in safety and soundness at banks and securities lenders. And the last factor is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“fir value accountingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? an ill-advised by Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the financial accounting standards board (FASB) to all public company to change the reporting standa rds. The nationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s biggest subprime lender, Ameriquest Mortgage co., gave more then US$20 million as a political donation. Other financial institutions like citigroup inc., wells Fargo co., donated huge amount on political side and on lobbying. This donation helped these institutions to persuade legislators to pass predatory-lending laws which might have contributed to present crisis to some extent (Simpson, 2007). According to Shiller (2008) the following factors played very big role in present crisis: Strategy of home ownership which encourage even those who could not afford one. The link between mortgage originator and receiver of payments broke due to mortgage securitization. Because of this there was no reason for mortgage originator to verify the solvency of borrowers. Many loans were issued at low interest rate or even at zero rates with the use of new financial techniques but afterwards rate were increased too high. Research Methodology Methodology plays a very crucial role in how research will be carried out. Methodology is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“an explanation of why you collected certain data, what data you collected, from where you collected it, when you collected it, how you collected it and how you analysed ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Collins, 2003). The researcher requires an interviewer or observer skills to gather data in the qualitative methods. This method requires collecting and analysing the data and applying the statistical tests (Riley, 2004). Qualitative research interprets opinion of the people in the sample, their way of looking at the subject, what they feel about subject and the dynamic interpret feeling on the subjects (Guari, 2005). The quantitative method mainly uses research instruments to gather, analyse and measure the data. Quantitative approach is more subjective approach. Quantitative approach includes analysing and reflecting on perception to understand social and human activities (Collins, 2003). The m ain purpose of this chapter is to explain and justify the primary research method which I have chosen to carry out my research. This chapter will also explain the significance of secondary data and state what sources of secondary data i will be using. Source of Acquisition of data Primary data Primary data collection means to collect new data of subjects for specific purpose. The different methods of collecting primary data are questionnaire, interview and sampling (Saunders, 2003). For my research it is very important to get some primary data to understand the topic in practical sense. By taking interview of the head of financial institution, will add extra value to my research and will broaden my understanding of topic as a whole. I will be collecting my primary data through interview with Mr Mitesh Sheth, Deputy Head of Henderson Global Investors. The main focus of interview will be to get their opinion about how did this crisis started, what was there response etc. I am also trying to contact few other key people but too early to mention anything about them yet. Secondary Data Secondary data means data collected previously for some purpose. The main sources of such data are library, internet, articles, business journals, research organization (Saunders, 2003). Methods of data analysis After collecting primary and secondary data the next stage is to evaluate or analyse the collected data. To convert data into graphs will be the easiest way to analyse the data. Hypothesis I will be analysing total amount of lending by US banks to solvent and insolvent borrowers and comparing their rate of default to conclude my research. Work Plan   Proposal submit 21st June literate review 31st July Preparation for interview 5th August Interview of selected person 10th August Analysis of data 20th August Start writing reports 15th September Draft report 10th October Final report October end On successfully completion of my dissertation I hope to come to a positive conclusion. I will utilise all the recourses available to me in order to draw out conclusion. Such as charts, graphs, historical data, interview, questionnaires etc.