Monday, January 27, 2020

Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds Analysis

Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds Analysis Manganese is a first row transition metal that has varies type of oxidation states when it appears as a compound. The oxidation range is from Mn(-III) till Mn(VII). This has shown that the compounds of manganese range in the oxidation number have a different of 10 electrons. The experiment 1 that we have done is changing oxidation state of manganese(II) chloride to an acetylacetonemanganese(III) with an oxidizing agent potassium permanganate. However, the main target compound that we are interested in this experiment 1 is the characterize complexes of 2 metal ions with the anion of acetylacetone. This compound is actually a typical a-diketone that can ionize in an aqueous solution as a weak acid. This is the main reason that the acetylacetonate anion will serve as a ligand towards metal ion and form new complexes. The ligand will bond to the metal through 2 oxygen atoms to form a six-membered ring. These six-membered rings (MO2C3) are in a planar shape and it is a weak aromatic. This is due to that they contain 6 Ï€ electrons. Thus, in the complexes of stoichiometry M(acac)3, there will be in a few different shapes. Such as the MO6 array is octahedral, for Cu(acac)2, the CuO4 group will be in square planar, and lastly for VO(acac)2, the VO5 group is in square pyramidal. As a result, the complexes are neutral in charge and they may be isolated as crystalline solids with interesting variety of colors. The equation for this experiment will be: MnCl2 + 4H2O → [Mn(H2O)4]Cl2 [Mn(H2O)4]Cl2 + 2HC5H7O2 + 2NaC2H3O2 → Mn(C5H7O2)2 + 2NaCl + 2HC2H3O2 Mn(C5H7O2)2 + KMnO4 + 7HC5H7O2 + HC2H3O2 → 5Mn(C5H7O2)3 + KC2H3O2 + 4H2O Cobalt is also another transition element that we are using in this experiment to form a coordination complexes. The cobalt 2+ ion is more stable than the cobalt 3+ ion for simple salts of cobalt. Therefore, there are only a few salts that are form with Co(II). However, the forming of complexes will eventually have a more stable oxidation state compare to the oxidation state of Co(II). In octahedral coordinated complexes, the number of complexes appears in a very stable conformation. Werner coordination complexes are compounds that formed between a transition metal ions and variety of organic and inorganic ions or neutral molecules. For both chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride and tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) also forms the octahedral coordination. In these complexes, it contains of six ligands (L) and a central atom (M) at the apices of an octahedron. For this experiment, the equation will be written as: Co2+ + NH4+ + 1/2H202 → [Co(NH3)5H2O]3+ [Co(NH3)5H2O]3+ + 3Cl- → [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 + H2O Vanadium is also a transition element where it also exits in a variety of oxidation states which is from -3 to +5. Each of it undergoes a wide variety of chemistry depends on the electronic and steric nature of the coordinating ligands of it. For an example, in a higher oxidation states, vanadium is very oxophilic, but at low oxidation states, the Ï€-donating ligands such as dinitrogen and carbon monoxide are preferred. Therefore, the +4 and +5 states for vanadium are more important in biological reactions. The vanadium(IV) is dominated by the stable oxovanadium (VO2+) cation that remains intact during many reactions. While the deoxygenation of oxovanadium(IV) complexes to form a six-coordinate vanadium(IV) complexes will usually enhances their reactivity. In this situation, vanadium that is also a strong oxidizing agent will actually undergo redox in high possibilities when it involve in the reaction with organic molecules. Majority of vanadium(IV) complexes depend upon oxovanadium ion VO2+ complexes and the color for it is generally green or blue-green. This compound has oxygen atoms coordinating in the equatorial plane where the apical coordination will be the oxo group that complete the square pyramidal geometry coordination. It acts as a good precursor and undergoes ligand exchange reaction where one or both of the acetlyacetonato groups can easily be exchanged with organic ligands that having coordinating of different potentialities. For both of the complexes above is all in hexacoordinate with octahedral. However, there are many examples of coordination chemistry with coordination numbers from 3 to 9. Pentacoordinate complexes are much less common than either tetra- or hexacoordinate. This is more common for some metals, compound with one oxidation state and some others rare compound. There are mainly two types of geometries for it which is trigonal bipyramidal and square pyramidal. The bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) is our product in this experiment 3. In this experiment, the equation for it can be written as: V2O5 + 2H2SO4 + EtOH 2VOSO4 + 3H2O + CH3CHO VOSO4 + 2HC5H7O2 + Na2CO3 VO(C5H7O2)2 + Na2So4 + H2O + CO2 Discussion: Interpretation of IR spectrum for tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III): Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 1635.2 1506.5 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C) stretching -(C=CH) deformation 1386.9 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3)- symmetric C-H deformation 1255.6 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C) stretching -(C-CH3) stretching 1014.8 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3) out-of plane bending 924.5 -relative intensity : strong -(C-CH3) stretching 785.6 -relative intensity : strong -(C-H)deformation 678.1 -relative intensity : medium/ strong -(C-CH3)stretching,(O=C-CH3) deformation -(Mn-O) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond 458.3 relative intensity : weak (C=C) stretching,(C-CH3) stretching -(Mn-O) stretching that also indicatesmetal-ligand bond Interpretation of IR spectrum for bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV): Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 1559.0 1532.9 -relative intensity : medium (C=O) stretching -( C=C),(C=CH) stretching 1419.0 -relative intensity : medium -(CH3) deformation 1374.3 1357.9 -relative intensity : strong -(C=O) stretching -(CH3) deformation mode 1287.0 -relative intensity : strong -(C=C=C) stretching 997.4 -relative intensity : strong and sharp -stretching of V=O bond -it also indicates the metal-ligand bond.(1) 1021.7 -relative intensity : strong -(CH3) rocking 937.0 -relative intensity : strong -(C-CH3) stretching -(C=O) stretching 798.7 -relative intensity : medium -(C-H) out-of-plane bending 686.0 657.1 -relative intensity : medium/ weak -(ring) deformation out-of-plane bending for: 609.6 -(ring) deformation Interpretation of IR spectrum for chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride: Wavenumber (cm-1) Description of bands 1635.0 1559.0 -relative intensity : medium -degenerate asymmetric NH3stretching 1304.8 -relative intensity : strong -symmetric NH3angle deformation 837.7 -relative intensity : strong -NH3rocking 669.2 -(Co-N) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond(1) 486.2 -(Co-Cl) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond(1) There are suppose to have a symmetric NH3 stretch, 3169.3 cm-1 and an asymmetric NH3 stretch, 3289.3 cm-1 in the IR spectrum. These two spectrums are important to prove that there are two different chemical conditions for this NH3 ligand in this complex. This condition is actually due to the distortion geometry by chloride ligand. From 3 of the IR spectrum that we had obtains is that we are able to identify two error in it. First is the peak that going upwards at the region between 2000 cm-1 and 2500 cm-1. This error is due to the FT-IR spectrometry error as it can be shown in the comparison between the second IR spectrums that read by another spectrometry. Then, the following error is the very strong H2O that is mixed within the compound when we are doing the tablets. This very strong H2O is within the range of 3200 cm-1 to 3800 cm-1 region. Magnetic susceptibility Diamagnetic If the intensity of magnetization is negative, the material is said to be diamagnetic. This works when the density of lines that force inside the sample is less than that outside in this material. When it placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field will tend to move to the region of lowest field. The repulsion that forms from the field will then produce energy in it. So, it is an endothermic process. Magnitude of the attractive force increase with the number of unpaired electrons that contain in the transition metal ion. Thus, the complexes that having a single unpaired d electron will interact less strongly with a magnetic field compared with complexes that have two unpaired electrons. So, complexes that contain no unpaired electrons are said to be diamagnetic and it is only weakly repelled by magnetic field. The figure is also very small as order of -1 to -10010-6 c.g.s e.m.u. In addition, it does not depend in the field strength and independent on temperature. In this experiment, th e chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride is a diamagnetic compound. The chloropentaamminecobalt(III) chloride has d6 electron configuration that is high spin. It is zero for the unpaired electrons in the orbital.(100) Paramagnetic If the intensity of magnetization of a paramagnetic is positive, hence ÃŽ ´w/ÃŽ ´H is negative and such a material will tend to move regions of maximum field strength since this is an exothermic process. The figure for the paramagnetic susceptibility is large and relative large as fall within the range of 100 to 100,00010-6 c.g.s e.m.u. In addition, it does not depend on magnetic field strength but do depend on temperature. Paramagnetic is a consequence of the interaction of and the spinangular momenta of unpaired electrons with the applied field. Complexes that have no unpaired electron in the orbital will have a magnetic moment that is as strong as it will attract each other stronger in the field. Thus this compound is paramagnetic. In this experiment, the bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) and tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) is a paramagnetic compound. The tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) has a d4 low spin of electron configuration with twp unpaired electrons. For the bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) has a d3 electron configuration that has 2 unpaired electrons within the orbital. So, this eventually states that both of the products are paramagnetic. (100) The Shape of the Compounds The shape for the bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV) is actually in a shape of square pyramidal as I had mention in the introduction. The formation of a square pyramidal complex is due to the ligand that influences it. The steric effect between vanadium and the other oxygen bonding will tend to have competed among each other for the spacing with the other ligands in the metal bonding orbital. This effect can be observed in the decrease in the IR stretching frequency of the VO bond when there is a sixth ligand coordinates trans to oxygen. (9) The shape for penta is in Werner coordination as I have mention also in the introduction. It means that it is in an octahedron shape with a 6 coordination numbers. The ground state for octahedral complexes Mn(acac)3 which is the product of our experiment 1 of is a 5Eg (t2g 3eg1) position. The black manganese(III) acetylacetonate complex that which is the product of our experiment usually has an octahedral configuration. there actually exists of the Jahn teller distortion. Thus, it will be not a pure octahedral conformation. Then, it will have two forms for this compounds where one is with substantial tetrahedral elongation where two Mn-O bonds at 212 pm, and four at 193 pm and the other with moderate tetragonal compression where the two Mn-O bonds at 195 pm and four at 200 pm. Namely, The room temperature effective magnetic moments of the manganese(III) complexes with mixed ligands are in the range of 4.76-4.9 ÃŽ ¼B, which corresponds to four unpaired electrons typical of the d4 system. It is supposed that in mixed-ligand complexes the ligand has localized Ï€-bond and do not favor electron-pairing. The Jahn-Teller effect due to an unequal filling up of t2g and eg orbital yields a distorted octahedral geometry in complex. These complexes have a dark green to green color. The proposed structures of the complexes shown in Fig 3 are consistent with the related data (5).

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Roman Gladiators

The Gladiators in general were either condemned criminals, prisoners of war, slaves brought for the purpose of the games and people who volunteered on their own will. The gladiatorial games reached their peak between the 1st century BCE and the 2nd century CE. Men who committed a capital crime were sent to the gladiatorial arena without a weapon defending themselves with their bare hands. The men who did not commit a capital crime were sent to training schools called Ludi. The earliest training schools were in Campania. At these schools they did not teach them to kill people but instead taught them to disable and capture their opponent. Criminals who trained in the schools were allowed to pick their own weapon and defence. If they survived a couple of years without dying they would receive freedom. The gladiators had to do what their owners (Lanista) told them to do otherwise they would be punished either by no food or beaten up. The gladiators were given adequate food supplies eating 3-4 times a day and received medical care. The Roman militaries success in war meant a big haul in of prisoners of war for the use in the gladiatorial games. Men who entered the games by free will had to take an oath in which they had to agree to the consequences of the game. This oath was: Being branded. Being chained. Being killed by an iron weapon. To pay for their food and drink they received with their blood and to suffer things even if they did not wish to. In the morning season of the games the Bestiarii or combatants who were taught to fight against animals were sent into the ring to fend for their lives against animals such as lions, tigers and bulls. Thousands of animals were slaughtered due to this proceeding. After these battles, unlucky men who had committed capital crimes were executed in front of the whole crowd by a sword. The winner of the gladiator battles received a palm branch form the editor. If he was outstanding he may even receive a laurel crown and money but the most sought-after award was the wooden training sword or staff given by the editor. There were many different types of gladiators. The Thracian gladiators were prisoners who were sent to Capua to train for the games in amphitheatres. Their uniform consisted of light leather for the body, little helmet, light shoes and a small round shield. They were trained to run around their opponents this is why they only had light gear. They had great mobility and stamina. Reziarius were equipped with a long net which was used to trip and trap their opponents, a fuscina (trident) which was their offensive weapon. They also had a small dagger which they used to give the final blow. They wore leather for protection and no helmet or shield to deflect their opponents strikes this is why they had to by agile and fit. The Dimacheri had two short swords and only two short leather arm guards to protect themselves. Speed was their speciality, they ran around their opponent and quickly evaded them making the opponent tired before killing him. Sannita were part of the heavy uniform gladiators. They wore a metal plate to protect the chest a long shield, a helmet with a grid to cover the eyes and a long sword to attack. These gladiators were slow but effective within the ring. The Generic gladiators had no particular skill they were used to fill up the space when the event went the whole day or more. Other types of gladiators include the Provocatores, Sesterziarii, Catervrii, Mirmillion, Essedarii, Paegnaria (dwarfs). The weapons of the gladiators consist of fascina(harpoon), galea(visored helmet), galerus(metal shoulder piece), gladius(sword), hasta(lance), iaculum(net), manicae(leather elbow or wrist bands),parma(round shield) ,scutum(large shield) and sica(curved scimitar).

Friday, January 10, 2020

Admission Services – Admission Essay

Everybody in life faces some challenges and difficulties which become a learning experience for them for future situations. We, humans, learn through our mistakes and the experiences that we go through. I have had such an experience at a very young age and it has enabled me to be around people with different cultural backgrounds and who share different views.When I was about ten years old, I had gone to America. Without any knowledge of what I would get to see and no hold on English I was afraid of how I will meet people and be able to communicate. I thought that since I’m different I will be treated differently and not accepted so easily. When a people do not know what is in store for them, they have an unreasonable or innate fear of being rejected or feel that they might not be socially accepted. I felt the same way when I went to America.however I decided that I will not let the barrier of language and knowledge about the country make my time here difficult, I decided to le arn the language, meet people, ask them anything I didn’t know or couldn’t understand. When I started being open and accepting towards the people, I realized that o got the same response. I was welcomed and embraced with love and respect.If I ever go anywhere to study now, I will be able to make friends more easily and be more social and outgoing. This will in return help me be more knowledgeable and free to be myself. When I had not gone to America, I had a fear of being socially unaccepted, but that experience had made me a more confident person and I’m no more shy and hesitant in my nature.This confidence boost was what I needed in life and this experience will surely help me when I go for further studies and external or foreign education programs. Admission services – Admission Essay This paper aims to tell about an external influence (a person, an event, etc.) that affected me and how it caused me to change direction based on     Newton’s First Law of Motion which states that an object in motion tends to stay in motion in the same direction unless acted upon by an external force.America is said to be the land of opportunities and indeed it is true as I now find myself wanting to become a bigger person in my dreams and accomplishments compared when I was in Korea. My coming to America I believe, have really allowed me to see a bigger and different world which changed my direction in life.The land of opportunities must be therefore closely associated to the world of business and that is where I want to go. This is motivating me therefore to pursue a study in business.I would like to believe that the world of business is governed by rules and laws which one must understand if one wants to venture into it.   Having the economic issues such as recession and lowering of interest rates by the Federal Reserve of the United States are not easy to understand and could not be easily learned by experience.Although it is said that experience is the best teacher, I would like to believe that having a formal education when business has become more globalized is the better route to faster learning if one wants to succeed in business.Given the big and complicated world of business I am motivated to become one of its players or participants in the future to come. I am looking forward therefore into putting my own business as one of the great ends after perhaps spending good experience from employment.I believe that the undergraduate business program of the University of Southern California[1] would help me to attain my dream to become successful in the field of business considering its name and experience as a university.I believe that the success of America as an economic power lies also in the academic freedom enjoyed by the schools and unive rsities     in bestowing the best kind of education to its students. If my coming to America has indeed caused me to change direction based on  Ã‚   Newton’s First Law of Motion, I believe that enrolling in one of its famous universities must be a great step to benefit from that change that would allow me to be what I want.I have the highest hope of nurturing my dreams in America and I believe I am adaptable to the change.   At a certain sense I believe I am one of the fortunate foreigners who would be able to make it here in America. The fact that I see the opportunities must be a strong indication of my leading to my long-term success.I therefore agree with Charles Darwin when he said that survival will belong not to the strongest and not even to the most intellectual but to those who would be most able to adapt to change.Reference:University of Southern California (2007), Undergraduate Degree Program, {www document} URL,  Ã‚  Ã‚ ions/cat2007/undergraduate/degree_programs_list.html, Accessed January 23, 2008 [1] University of Southern California (2007), Undergraduate Degree Program, {www document} URL,  Ã‚  Ã‚, Accessed January 23, 2008

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The Factors That Have Led To Financial Crisis - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1818 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? The world had faced two major financial disasters during 20th century. The first crisis happened during 1920-30, which mainly affected the developed countries like Europe and America. Second crisis started in 1997 and stayed till 1999, mainly affected developing economies of Asia pacific. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Factors That Have Led To Financial Crisis" essay for you Create order The recent financial crisis which has awakened the whole world mainly resulted from unregulated financial market. It has created serious anxiety because it falls outwards from U.S, the starting point. Alan Greenspan recently called it a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“once-in-a-century credit tsunamià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, born of a collapse deep inside the US housing sector. In order to avoid complete meltdown, governments and central banks worked day and night. Trillions of dollars have been allocated to financial institutions by the governments to recover from the crisis in the United States alone Who were the culprits of financial crisis? It is impossible to held just single factor responsible for such a big mass in the absence of other factors. In my research i want to analyse the contribution of each factor but the questions arise in my mind is How did Lehman Brother, the fourth largest investment bank in USA failed? Why majority of financial institutions failed in compare to other institutions? This surly point towards irresponsible activities by financial institutions in their main business à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"LENDINGà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. So focus of my research is to find out the dominant role of easy lending in present crisis along with other factors. The effect of financial crisis 2008 was such sever that even allocating huge amount to address the issues proven insufficient to resolve it. Congress approved $700 billion in response to the problem. Federal reserve spend $1.3 trillion to bail out markets and institution that includes investments in risky assets, loans to bankrupt institutions, sharing such debt which were defaulting at faster rates (Morris, 2008). A further $900 billion were allocated as lending to large corporations (Aversa, 2008), reaching the total of nearly $3 trillion as bailout package so far, without even adding the big amount of corporate debt promised by the U.S government year before the crisis An understanding of the root causes of this à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“colossal failureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? that has put à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the entire financial systemà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ at riskà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Woellert and Kopecki, 2008) is necessary to avoid such failures in the future. Number of factors can be held responsible for financial crisis which emerged over number of years. Causes proposed include the following sub-prime mortgages/ easy lending Poor credit rating Failure of regulators Shadow banking Securitization Credit default swap Mortgage backed securities Assets backed commercial paper etc . Aims and Objective Aim of this research is to understand the root causes of financial crisis particularly lending practises as a major factor. Objective To explore the history of financial crisis To evaluate who were the victims and culprits of financial crisis Impact of financial crisis on other countries (UK, USA, India, Japan) What steps are being taken by government to overcome crisis What could be done to prevent repetition of crisis in future? Literature Review: How did we get to this point? Surprisingly it all started from residential mortgages in the U.S. It had become apparent from 2004 that mortgages issued to majority of consumers did not make any rational sense. Situation was more worsted by so called mortgage brokers who issued mortgages to many insolvent consumers in order to generate outsized fees. On other hand new financial vehicles called mortgage-backed securities (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“MBSà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?) rated by well know credit rating agencies were introduced by Wall Street. These high yielding mortgage-backed securities were bought by investors from all over the world which increased funding for new mortgages. Appraiser ignored all rules to meet the increasing demand of mortgage applications. Federal Reserve board appointed by congress in 1994 to regulate mortgage lenders decided to watch the game from pavilion. Finally as the bubble accelerates, there is necessary reckoning à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" house prices collapsed. This is how g reediness and irresponsibility resulted into a biggest financial crisis (Schmudde, 2008). Sub-prime mortgages which are always blamed for financial crisis is only a component of the deeper problem. The value of credit default swaps, which was originally estimated to be $55 trillion by the securities and exchange ( 4 times higher then the actual figure) are totally unregulated and majority of them were contracted over the phone without any verification, is the root cause from which all the problems of crisis started (Simon, 2008). Regulators had forecasted the problem of present crisis years in advance were not taken seriously because of the successful business by the same financial institutions which are either bankrupt or funded by the government (Associated Press, 2008). According to Bernanke (2009) and Portes (2009) global imbalances are the fundamental cause of the crisis and it is not possible to fully understand present crisis without considering the issue of global imba lances. As per Jagannathan, Kapoor, and Schaumberg (2009) imbalances in labour supply can assist to understand the present crisis. Acharya and Richardson(2009), and Acharya and Schnabl (2009) argue that banks were suppose to transfer the risks to end investors while securitising, particularly in the case of asset-backed commercial paper and purchase of AAA-rated tranches but they never did which led them to huge pool of credit risks. Schmudde (2009) documents that no verification of consumerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s income were done while issuing sub-prime mortgages. Many of them were issued for or close to 100% of the house price. Even borrowers with bad credit history easily managed to get mortgages. This is one of the reasons for huge growth in subprime mortgages which increased from $35 billion to $807 billion between1995 to 2005. According to Bartlett (2008) decline of US subprime mortgage triggered the crisis, the impact of the down fall was tremendous; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Mark-to-marke t losses on mortgage backed securities, collateralized debt obligations, and related assets through March 2008 were approximate $945 billion.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? He further said that it is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The largest financial loss in historyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, in compared to $780 billion of 1990 Japanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s banking crisis, lost accrued from Asian crisis of 1997-98 about $420 billion. . While explaining the reason how did this crisis turn into a global crisis, Khatiwada and McGirr (2008) stated à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Many of these Sub-prime mortgages actually never made it on the balance sheets of the lending Institutions that originated themà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?; and such mortgages by rating them high were made attractive to world investors, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“when sub-prime borrowers failed to repay their mortgages, the originating institution needed to finance the foreclosure with their own money, bringing the asset back on its balance sheet. This left many banks in a financially unviable situati on, in a rather short, unmanageable timeframeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. According to Mian and Sufi (2008) increased demand for mortgage backed securities led to lending boom which is the root cause of present crisis. Whalen (2008) argues that three main factors are at the root of the problem. First, many companies, banks, and government agencies were encouraged to increase the viability of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“affordable housingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? by introducing à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“creative financing techniquesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. Second, big number of over-the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"counter derivatives and securities were issued by majority of financial institutions due to huge support by the regulators, led to a breakdown in safety and soundness at banks and securities lenders. And the last factor is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“fir value accountingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? an ill-advised by Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the financial accounting standards board (FASB) to all public company to change the reporting standa rds. The nationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s biggest subprime lender, Ameriquest Mortgage co., gave more then US$20 million as a political donation. Other financial institutions like citigroup inc., wells Fargo co., donated huge amount on political side and on lobbying. This donation helped these institutions to persuade legislators to pass predatory-lending laws which might have contributed to present crisis to some extent (Simpson, 2007). According to Shiller (2008) the following factors played very big role in present crisis: Strategy of home ownership which encourage even those who could not afford one. The link between mortgage originator and receiver of payments broke due to mortgage securitization. Because of this there was no reason for mortgage originator to verify the solvency of borrowers. Many loans were issued at low interest rate or even at zero rates with the use of new financial techniques but afterwards rate were increased too high. Research Methodology Methodology plays a very crucial role in how research will be carried out. Methodology is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“an explanation of why you collected certain data, what data you collected, from where you collected it, when you collected it, how you collected it and how you analysed ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Collins, 2003). The researcher requires an interviewer or observer skills to gather data in the qualitative methods. This method requires collecting and analysing the data and applying the statistical tests (Riley, 2004). Qualitative research interprets opinion of the people in the sample, their way of looking at the subject, what they feel about subject and the dynamic interpret feeling on the subjects (Guari, 2005). The quantitative method mainly uses research instruments to gather, analyse and measure the data. Quantitative approach is more subjective approach. Quantitative approach includes analysing and reflecting on perception to understand social and human activities (Collins, 2003). The m ain purpose of this chapter is to explain and justify the primary research method which I have chosen to carry out my research. This chapter will also explain the significance of secondary data and state what sources of secondary data i will be using. Source of Acquisition of data Primary data Primary data collection means to collect new data of subjects for specific purpose. The different methods of collecting primary data are questionnaire, interview and sampling (Saunders, 2003). For my research it is very important to get some primary data to understand the topic in practical sense. By taking interview of the head of financial institution, will add extra value to my research and will broaden my understanding of topic as a whole. I will be collecting my primary data through interview with Mr Mitesh Sheth, Deputy Head of Henderson Global Investors. The main focus of interview will be to get their opinion about how did this crisis started, what was there response etc. I am also trying to contact few other key people but too early to mention anything about them yet. Secondary Data Secondary data means data collected previously for some purpose. The main sources of such data are library, internet, articles, business journals, research organization (Saunders, 2003). Methods of data analysis After collecting primary and secondary data the next stage is to evaluate or analyse the collected data. To convert data into graphs will be the easiest way to analyse the data. Hypothesis I will be analysing total amount of lending by US banks to solvent and insolvent borrowers and comparing their rate of default to conclude my research. Work Plan   Proposal submit 21st June literate review 31st July Preparation for interview 5th August Interview of selected person 10th August Analysis of data 20th August Start writing reports 15th September Draft report 10th October Final report October end On successfully completion of my dissertation I hope to come to a positive conclusion. I will utilise all the recourses available to me in order to draw out conclusion. Such as charts, graphs, historical data, interview, questionnaires etc.